Conscience, ḍamīr (ضمیر) and Muhammad Iqbal’s concept of ‘khūdī’ (خُودی).

Conscience, ḍamīr (ضمیر) and Muhammad Iqbal’s concept of ‘khūdī’ (خُودی).

خُودی کو کر بلند اتنا کہ ہر تقدیر سے پہلے
خُدا بندے سے خود پوچھے بتا تیری رضا کیا ہے۔ [1]

Raise thy Selfhood (khūdī) so high that before each (taqdīr) dispensation,

God Himself may ask thee what thy wishes are.[2]

Is there a similar concept of conscience in Islamic philosophical thought? I will begin to answer this question by initially looking at modern and traditional Arabic semantics of the word conscience. I will then explore a modern understanding of the ‘inner-self’ – khūdī, a concept expounded by Muhammad Iqbal, a Poet philosopher and the thought behind the creation of Pakistan. Again, I will begin exploring the semantics of khūdī and by explaining what khūdī is not and how it contradicts the ṣūfī notion of self-denial. Thereafter I will explicate khūdī from a contemporary and conservative perspective, for the former I will take into account the interpretation of Zaid Hamid and how he differentiates between ‘negative’ ego and khūdī and I will strengthen my argument via the latter by expressing his thought through Qur’ānic verses and traditions of the Prophet. In order to fully understand the difference between khūdī and negative ego I will explore the functions of qalb and nafs, and in the process define al-Nafs al-Ammārah, al-Nafs al-Lawwāmah and al-Nafs al-muṭma’innah. I will then deal with a common misunderstanding between Iqbal’s Perfect Man and Nietzsche’s Superman through Iqbal’s self-clarification and critic of Nietzsche. I will conclude by looking at the final stage of khūdī and how it interacts the environment and community.

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I believe it incumbent to initiate by giving a semantic understanding of the meaning of ‘conscience’ in Arabic, as it is the language of the Qur’an, hence the language of the Sacred Text and primary source of Islam. According to the study of Oddbjørn Leirik, the Arabic word ‘ḍamīr’ has been associated to ‘conscience’ in Modern Arabic, despite the usage of su’ūr and wa’y for self-reflexive consciousness. In traditional Arabic, according to Shiite, ṣūfī and philosophical usage the word ḍamīr has also been used. A Shiite tafsīr attributed to Imam Ja’far al-Ṣādiq, uses the word ḍamīr when commenting on the following verse: “The next day, Moses’ mother felt a void in her heart – if We had not strengthened it to make her one of those who believe, she would have revealed everything about him” (Qur’ān 28:10). This verse uses two distinct words for heart, qalb and fu’ād, Ja’far al-Ṣādiq further commentates: ‘the ṣadr is the source (ma’din) of submission, the qalb is the source of certitude, the fu’ād is the source of contemplation, al-ḍamīr is the source of the secret (al-sirr, i.e. things known only to God), and the soul (nafs) is the refuge of all good and all evil’.[3] According to Leirik’s findings all the words used by Ṣādiq are in the Qur’ān except ḍamīr, which is closely and intimately related to sirr.[4] One also finds in the sermons of ‘Alī that he has used the word al-ḍamā’ir (pl. of ḍamīr) for ‘God’s eyes’. In contemporary context Muhammad Iqbal has also used the word ḍamīr for the inner-self and heart even though he has ultimately chosen the word khūdī for his concept of the inner-self. Upon exploring the quote of Ṣādiq regarding the diversity of words used for that inner sense and also when looking at the phrase used by ‘Alī ‘God’s eyes’ it becomes evident that to fully comprehend ‘conscience’ becomes a strenuous task, as Richard Gula stressed. “Conscience is a difficult notion to understand and even more difficult to explain how it operates. Yet, we all know that we have a conscience, even if we can’t explain how we got it or how it works.”[5]

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I will now examine a modern approach to a part of conscience by understanding the ‘controversial’ yet befitting word khūdī and how Muhammad Iqbal uses it under the context of the inner-self. The reason for its controversy is its simple and lexical meaning. The meanings generally understood are self, selfishness and conceit.[6] When this word is explored in Urdu and Persian literature its usage covers the meaning vanity, pomp, and arrogance.[7] However, Iqbal transforms the negative meaning of khūdī into something positive, He exclaims;

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“The word khūdī‟ was chosen with great difficulty and most reluctantly. From a literary point of view it has many shortcomings and ethically it is generally used in a bad sense both in Urdu and Persian. The words for [the] mystical fact of the ‘I’ are equally bad, e.g. anānīyāt, nafs, shakhs, anā. What is needed is a colourless word for self, ego, having no ethical significance. As far as I know there is no such word in either Urdu or Persian. The word man in Persian is equally bad. However, considering the requirements of [the] verse, I thought the word khūdī was most suitable”.[8]

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Iqbal transforms the meaning of khūdī from arrogance and vanity to self-realization and self-affirmation. He elaborates the new and ‘modern’ meaning of khūdī, in contrast to the old and general:

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“Ethically the word khūdī means (as used by me) self reliance, self-respect, self confidence, self preservation, even self-assertion when such a thing is necessary, in the interests of life and the power to stick to the cause of truth, justice, duty, etc., etc., even in the face of death.”[9]

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Being highly proficient in Urdu and Persian poetry, he had also changed many „out-dated‟ idioms, hence changing entire concepts.

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Iqbal’s concept of khūdī, I believe, is a critical response to the ṣūfī notion of self debasement, as Abdur Rashid Siddiqui argues khūdī was diametrically opposed to this concept.[10] Rūmī, too had used this word in its negative meaning, ‘cut the head of khūdī with the sword, you are without khūdī, be absorbed and dervish like.”[11] Although Iqbal had attributed a positive meaning to the word khūdī, it was troublesome for Muslims, at the time, to fully appreciate Iqbal due to the ages old notion of fanā’ fi-Allāh (the annihilation of the self in the Divine Being) and Waḥ dat al-Wujūd . For many Iqbal had gone too far, even with his stern criticism of Ibn al-„Arabī and Ḥāfiẓ Shīrāzī, who was an exponent of Ibn al-‘Arabī’s thought.

Ibn al-‘Arabī had influenced most contemporary poets, Ḥāfiẓ , being one of them, was an influential follower of his pantheistic theory of Waḥ dat al-Wujūd, the matrix concept of the materialistic world being but a mere illusion of the mind. Ḥāfiẓ illustrates this notion, “The result of the workshop of the world, all these do not exist, bring forth wine, as the causes of the world, all these do not exist. The world and the business of the world are all nothing and worthless, thousands of times I have pondered on this point”.[12] At a time when the Islamic world had fallen into deep slumber and not yet shown signs of resilience. The unifying body of Muslim lands (the khilāfah) had been devastated. He once mentioned in his poem, “Can you see the utter degradation [of the Ummah?], can you believe that Islam will rise again after its capitulation?[13] For Iqbal, especially in this period of decay of the ‘ummah, the concept presented by Ibn al-‘Arabī and Ḥāfiẓ was by far not the answer. According to Siddiqui, if this world and all its affairs are worthless and useless, then there is no place here for human endeavour and pursuit. This destroys the human self and leads to inactivity and dormancy.

There is no need to struggle, to preserve and to make an effort to bring about change and improve the human condition”,[14] and it was for this reason exclaims Iqbal, “beware of Ḥāfiẓ the drinker, His cup is full of poison”.[15] For Iqbal ruhbāniyyah (monasticism) was not the solution for the khūdi (self) to grow. Iqbal despite his criticism of previous ṣūfī thought insists that he is not to be compared to previous scholars, who called upon escapism; he was now facing a different era with different problems.

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In Iran, where the official language is Persian, Iqbal is revered as a revolutionary, believing that he has changed many Persian Idioms. Prior to Iqbal’s concept a Persian idiom initiated by Sa’dī was ‘zamāna bāṭ ino sāzad tū bāzamāna basās’, which meant, ‘if the times go against you escape from it’, this was later replaced by an idiom of Iqbal, ‘zamāna bāino sāzad tū bāzamāna satīs’, that if the times are going against you be at war against it. Iqbal makes this notion very clear in Asrār-e-Khūdī, The moral and religious ideal of man is not self-negation but self affirmation, and he attains to this ideal by becoming more and more individual, more and more unique. The Prophet said, takhallaqū bi-akhlāq Allāh, ‘Create in you the attributes of God’. Thus man becomes unique by becoming more and more like the most unique individual”.[16]

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Iqbal’s concept of khūdī could be understood as a romantic ideology, which forces man to wake up to his reality to become a man who has intense power within himself to create his own destiny. Iqbal stresses this point in one of his poems that if man recognises himself and uplifts his khūdī he will be in control of his own destiny, free to choose his will:

خُودی کو کر بلند اتنا کہ ہر تقدیر سے پہلے
خُدا بندے سے خود پوچھے بتا تیری رضا کیا ہے۔[17]

Raise thy Selfhood (khūdī) so high that before each (taqdīr) dispensation,

God Himself may ask thee what thy wishes are.[18]

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What is that meta-physical experience that could be recognised, in order for it to be in control of its own destiny? What is the difference between Khūdi and ego, and superego? Zaid Hamid, a contemporary interpreter of Iqbal’s philosophy and meta-physics explains, there are two (markaz) centres in the existence of man, one centre (markaz) absorbs the negative forces and the other (markaz) centre absorbs the positive force fields throughout the world, which makes him useful for the universe. The negative centre is termed ‘nafs’ and the positive centre is understood as qalb. The Satan resonates the nafs and when the intellect of man gains energy from the nafs he begins to nourish it through ghaflat (unconsciousness), bad-kirdārī (malevolence), and all other evil, it is when it becomes difficult to differentiate between good and evil.[19] The concept of being able to differentiate between good and evil is termed Furqān in the Qur‟ān 8:59.[20] However, Zaid Hamid further explains, ‘when the nafs develops and gives energy to man’s intellect then the ‘aql (intellect) becomes fitnah gar (mischievous), it is for this very reason that one is surrounded by fasād (mischief) This fitnah, which engulfs the minds, has its basis in the ‘negative ego’, which further comes from the nafs’.[21] He claims that the ego or ‘negative ego’ is the product of the nafs, hence I believe it becomes important to understand the composition and function of nafs.

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In order to understand nafs I will look at the three types of nafs mentioned in the Qur’an, and how it could also be compared to the Jewish understanding of conscience. The Qur’an reveals three types of nafs; (1) al-Nafs al-Ammārah; (2) al-Nafs al-Lawwāmah; and (3) al-Nafs al-Muṭ ma’innah. One may see this shift in the three states as bad, intermediate and good nafs, when the bad nafs is reformed it passes to the intermediate stage and when reformed further transforms into the good and content nafs. Al-Nafs al-Ammārah describes the nafs or soul which is inclined towards sū’ (evil). Al-Nafs al-Ammārah could to be understood from the incident, in which the wife of Potiphar (Zulaekhā / imra’at al-Azīz) tempts Prophet Joseph, to which he humbly replies upon being released from prison to clarify his true position:

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“And yet, I am not trying to absolve myself: for, verily, man’s inner self does incite [him] to evil, and saved are only they upon whom my Sustainer bestows His grace. Behold, my Sustainer is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace!” (Qur’ān 12:53).[22]

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Muhammad Asad believes al-‘Ammārah is indeed want to command [the doing of] evil” – i.e., is filled with impulses which often conflict with what the mind regards as a moral good”.[23] It is interesting here to note Jonathan Gorsky’s comments on Joseph’s conscience in the same incident, “when the biblical Joseph was tempted by the wife of Potiphar, the text records that he hesitated before finally refusing her advances. A rabbinic gloss indicates that he was about to succumb and was only forestalled by a sudden vision of his father’s countenance. Conscience presented itself as an image of his father’s face; past associations and memories had a powerful effect upon his behaviour”.[24] This understanding of conscience closely resembles that of the super-ego, in one Joseph sees his conscience in the face of his father whereas the contrary he refers back to God’s grace.

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Upon reforming the al-Nafs al-Ammārah it is transformed into al-Nafs al- Lawwāma, the sub conscience voice which speaks to him of the bad it has done or intends to do. The Qur’ān takes an oath on such a nafs to certify the day of recompense, “But nay! I call to witness the accusing voice of man’s own conscience!” (Qur’ān 75:2).[25] Asad commentates that al-Nafs al-Lawwāma here refers to “the [self-] reproaching soul”: i.e., man’s subconscious awareness of his own shortcomings and failings.[26] It is noted that this nafs gives man awareness of the shortcomings and failings and does not complement the good.

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Finally, when man reforms al-Nafs al-Lawwāma it transforms into a pure state, termed al-Nafs al-Muṭ ma’innah in Qur’ānic terms. It is where according to the Qur’ān man is called upon to return on to the divine; (As for an obedient man, it will be said to him,) “O content soul (Yā ayyatuha al-nafs al-Muṭ ma’innah!), come back to your Lord, well-pleased, well-pleasing. So, enter among My (special) servants, and enter My Paradise” (Qur’ān 89:27-30).[27] This is the desired nafs and is seen as the end goal of a Muslim. It now becomes clear that Zaid Hamid’s exposition of the nafs coincides with that of Ṣādiq in , “the soul (nafs) is the refuge of all good and all evil”.[28]

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Zaid Hamid, further explains the notion of qalb to clarify the difference between khūdī and ego. Qalb is that centre (markaz) that absorbs the positive and good force fields. Therefore, I believe the tradition regarding Prophet Muhammad instructing his companion also points towards the positive function of the qalb:

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“Wāṣibah ibn Ma’bad reports: I came to God’s Messenger (may God bless him and grant him peace), and he said: “You have come to ask about goodness and sin? “Yes,” I replied. And he said: “Ask for a verdict [fatwā] from your (qalb) heart. Goodness is what the soul and the heart find peace in, and sin is that which causes abrasion in the (nafs) soul and a hesitation in the breast; even if people have given you verdict after verdict”.[29]

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In this tradition Prophet Muhammad ascribes goodness to the Qalb and nafs, and instructs his companion on asking his qalb (heart), on the contrary ascribes sin only to the nafs. The difference between the function of both qalb and nafs is also commentated on by Ashraf ‘Ali Thānawī, he explains the mystical state of a spiritual student towards his guide (ṣūfī saint), “sālik kā nafs muzakkā aur us kā qalb mujallā ho jātā hai”.[30] Thanawi describes how the nafs of the student must be muzakkā, which means purified and his qalb must be mujallā, which means enlightened. Here one could assume that the process of purification takes place only if it requires purifying and on the enlightenment of the heart takes place following the purification of the nafs.

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Finally, Zaid Hamid explains how khūdī differs from the negative ego. He exclaims, the heart does not take one towards sin as it is the centre of all spiritual forces, which attracts towards it all positive energy. Hence, the energy, which exits the [qalb] heart and controls his entire existence, is Khūdī. And the energy which exits the [nafs] soul is the negative ego.[31] Therefore, the Khūdī is not the conscience, neither ego nor superego, but the energy which comes from the qalb and controls a man’s existence. Iqbal, himself, explains khūdī as, “An emotional unity or a bright thing of the conscience by which all human ideas and inspirations are enlightened. This is an eternal reality, which is a binding force for the scattered and unlimited mental states. It is a silent force which is anxious to come into action”.[32] Iqbal further enlightens his notion with one of his famous poems regarding khūdī, here I will see how Iqbal differentiates between it and qalb,

خودی کا نشیمن ترے دل میں ہے [33]

فلک جس طرح آنکھ کے تِل میں ہے [34]

The abode of khūdī is within your [qalb / dil[35]] heart.

As the sky is within the pupils of your eyes.[36]

Within this poem, Iqbal stresses the fact that khūdī is something which is in the heart, and also expresses the greatness of khūdī by comparing it to the skies and how such a great entity could all be seen in the pupil of another’s eye. In the same manner the khūdī, despite its greatness absorbs itself in the qalb. Towards the end of Iqbal’s life when he was asked the basis of his concept of khūdi he replied, “And be not like those who have forgotten God, so that God has made them forget themselves” (Qur’an 59:19). Towards the end of his life he began distributing books from his library and would explain his concepts solely from the Qur’an.

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Iqbal has at times been accused of taking his concept from Friedrich Nietzsche’s concept of a Superman. I will briefly discuss this accusation and explore Iqbal’s views regarding Nietzsche. Abdur Rashid Siddiqui contends that there are similarities between Iqbal and Nietzsche, but, Iqbal’s ideal man always endeavours to draw nearer to God and seek strength from Him. Whereas for Nietzsche God is dead and Superman has replaced him.[37] Iqbal also addresses Nietzsche in his poem, ‘If that majdhūb – infatuated European [Nietzsche] was alive today, Then, Iqbal would have explained to him the status of the High One’, making it very clear that the concept of khūdī is orientated towards the Divine contrary to Nietzsche. Siddiqui then quotes Iqbal’s notes given to Nazir Niazi regarding the difference between his and Nietzsche’s concept:

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“The superficial resemblance of these three parts of the growth of [the] man human ‘I’ with Nietzsche’s three [i.e. tri-partity] metamorphosis of the spirit may mislead some readers. It is therefore necessary to warn readers of Asrar-e- Khūdi that Nietzsche does not at all believe in the spiritual fact which I have described as khūdī in the poem”.[38]

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Iqbal, when speaking of ‘these three parts of the growth’ is referring to contents of his famous Persian work Asrār-e-khūdī (Secrets of the Self). In Asrār-e-khūdī Iqbal explains the three stages of the khūdī in its movement towards uniqueness, (a) Obedience to the Law (b) Self-control, which is the highest form of self-consciousness or ego-hood and (c) Divine vicegerency [khalīfah].[39] Iqbal further commentates on the last stage of the growth of the self (khūdī), ‘This divine vicegerency is the third and last stage of human development on earth. The vicegerent is the vicegerent of God on earth. He is the completed ego, the goal of humanity’.[40]

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When the khūdī reaches its final stage of growth and recognises its position in the world, it becomes clear that now the self must react to the environment. Hence, there now forms a unity between the self and community. Therefore Iqbal explains this interaction, as a kind of tension caused by the ego invading the environment and the environment invading the ego. The ego does not stand outside this arena of mutual invasion‟.[41] It is essential here to mention the notion of the ‘ummah and how Iqbal creates a unity between the self and the community’.[42] The Muslim concept of a single body and mind (the ‘ummah) is rooted in the following tradition.

المسلمون کرجل واحد ان اشتکیٰ عینہ اشتکیٰ کلہ و ان اشتکیٰ راسہ اشتکیٰ کلہ [43]

Al-Nu’mān ibn Bashīr “Allah be pleased with him” reported: The Prophet “Allāh’s blessing and peace be upon him” said: “Muslims are like one body of a person: if his eye is sore, the whole body will ache, and if his head aches, the whole body will ache’.[44] It therefore stresses how closely the individual is based with the collective individuals to form this notion of ‘ummah’. As for the concepts of khūdī and Rumūz-e-Bēkhūdī, the individual and the environment, when one fully becomes that ‘Perfect Man’ according to Iqbal embodied in the ummah he then attains the final goal, which was initially his purpose of being created, “I am putting a successor / vicegerent on earth” (Quran 2:30). This notion of combining an individual with the community is also embedded in the Qur’an, ‘O Dawūd, We have made you a vicegerent on earth, so judge between people with truth, and do not follow the selfish desire, lest it should lead you astray from Allah’s path’,[45] it is evident how Prophet David, once declared vicegerent not only has to detest desires of the self but also has within his responsibilities the just treatment and interaction of the community.

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I initiated by exploring the semantics of ḍamīr (conscience), and thereafter examined the role of khūdī within ḍamīr and qalb. I firstly explored the manner in which Iqbal presents his concept with the transformation of the word khūdī resulting in the change of old ṣūfī concept of self-denial. I then explored the concept of khūdī, attending to the function of nafs and qalb, whilst expositing the three nufūs (pl. of nafs). I thereafter explained the difference between khūdī and negative ego, as the latter being the energy which comes from the qalb and absorbs the good and on the contrary the latter, is the energy which comes from the nafs and attracts bad. Thereafter I looked at the misunderstanding regarding Iqbal’s concept as ‘a plagiarism of Nietzsche’, where one is founded upon spirituality and the Divine and the latter contradicts God. I finally concluded on how khūdī is related to the community and the environment for it to be in its complete form.

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The Message of the Quran: Translation by Muhammad Asad.

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Abram, A. (2008). „Conscious Conscience and Unconscious Superego: Moral Theological Reflection on the Priority of Erroneous Conscience over Faultless Superego‟. Stuolia Bobolanum

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Al-Bukhārī, M. (2003, 1st e.d.). Al’Bukhārī’s Ṣaḥ īḥ (صحیح البخاری ): The Correct Traditions of Al’Bukhārī. Trans. Al-Sharīf, M. M. Dar Al-Kotob Al-ilmiyah: Beirut, Lebanon

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Arberry, A. J. (2005). Notes on Iqbal’s asrār-e-khūdī. Kitab Bhavan: New Delhi, India

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Hoose, B. (1998). Christian Ethics: An Introduction. Cassell: London, UK

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Hoose, J. (ed.) (1999). Conscience in World Religions. A Canterbury Book: England

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Iqbal, M. (1915). Asrār-I-Khūdī ( اسرارِ خودی): The Secrets of the Self. English translation by Reynold A. Nicholson. Accessed online [19/04/2010]:

http://www.allamaiqbal.com/works/poetry/persian/asrar/translation/index.htm

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Iqbal, M. (1934). The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. Accessed online[07/03/2010]:

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Iqbal, M. (no date). Bāl-e-Jibrīl (بالِ جبریل ): matan, tarjumah aur mushkil alfāẓ kī tashrīḥ . Edited by A. D. Nasim. Sheikh Muhammad Bashir & Sons: Urdu Bazar, Pakistan.

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Leirvik, O. (2006). Human Conscience and Muslim-Christian Relations: Modern Egyptian thinkers on al-amīr. Routledge Islamic Studies: New York, USA

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Siddiqui, A. R. (2007). Man and Destiny: Some Reflections on Iqbal’s Concepts of Khūdī and the Perfect Man. The Islamic Foundation: Leicester, UK

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Solomon, N., Harries R. and Winter T. (2005). Abraham’s Children: Jews, Christians and Muslims in Conversations. T&T Clark: London, UK

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Thānawī, M. A. A. (1424 A.H.). al-Qur’ān al-Ḥakīm ma’a mukammal tafsīr: Bayān al-Qur’ān. Idara Taleefat-e-Ashrafia: Multan, Pakistan.

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(Iqbal ka Pakistan Episode 8 & 9)

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[1] All Urdu and Persian texts have been taken from: http://www.allamaiqbal.com/

[2] Iqbal, M. Bāl-e-Jibrīl (بالِ جبریل ): Trans. Naeem Siddiqui. Accessed online: http://www.allamaiqbal.com/

[3] Leirvik, O. (2006). Human Conscience and Muslim-Christian Relations: Modern Egyptian thinkers on al-ḍamīr. (p.69)

[4] Ibid.

[5] Hoose, B. (1998). Christian Ethics: An Introduction. Chapter 7: Conscience by Richard M. Gula (p.110)

[6] Gem Practical Combined Dictionary – Urdu to English & English to Urdu. 21st Century Edition: Azhar Saqlain Bhatti: Lahore. (p.320)

[7] Siddiqui, A. R. (2007). Man and Destiny: Some Reflections on Iqbal’s Concepts of Khūdī and the Perfect Man. (p.29)

[8] ibid., (p.30) cited from: Thoughts and Reflections of Iqbal, edited by Syed Abdul Vahid. (p.243)

[9] ibid., (p. 31) cited from: As above. (p.244)

[10] ibid., (p.29)

[11] ibid.

[12] ibid., (p.35)

[13] Ibid., (p.2)

[14] Ibid., (p.35)

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[16] Iqbal, M. (1915). Asrār-I-Khūdī (اسرارِ خودی ): The Secrets of the Self. English translation by Reynold A. Nicholson.

http://www.allamaiqbal.com/

[17] Iqbal, M. (no date). Bāl-e-Jibrīl (بالِ جبریل ): matan, tarjumah aur mushkil alfāz kī tashrīḥ . (p.164)

[18] Iqbal, M. Bāl-e-Jibrīl (بالِ جبریل ): Trans. Naeem Siddiqui. Accessed online: http://www.allamaiqbal.com/

[19] Iqbāl kā Pākistān 2009. broadcast. Aag TV. (Episode 9) Accessed online: http://www.brasstacks.pk/index.php?option=com_jmovies&Itemid=93&task=detail&id=320&lang=en

[20] According to Asad this refers to the faculty of moral valuation‟ (Manār IX, 648) which he argues is also relevant in the following verse, “And [remember the time] when We vouchsafed unto Moses the divine writ – and [thus] a standard [Furqān] by which to discern the true from the false – so that you might be guided aright”; (Qur’ān 2:53). Asad, in his footnote to this verse expounds, “Muhammad ‘Abduh amplifies the above interpretation of al-furqān (adopted by Tabarī, Zamakhsharī and other great commentators) by maintaining that it applies also to ‘human reason, which enables us to distinguish the true from the false’ (Manār III, 160), Abduh also refers to 8:29, where it clearly refers to the faculty of moral valuation which distinguishes every human being who is truly conscious of God.

[21] Iqbāl kā Pākistān 2009. broadcast. Aag TV. (Episode 9) Accessed online:

http://www.brasstacks.pk/index.php?option=com_jmovies&Itemid=93&task=detail&id=320&lang= en

[22] Asad’s Translation

[24] Hoose, J. (ed.) (1999). Conscience in World Religions. Gorsky J. – ‘Conscience in Jewish Tradition’. (p.129)

[25] Trans. Asad.

[26] Asad, M. The Message of the Quran.

[27] Trans. Muft Taqi Uthmānī.

[28] Leirvik, O. (2006). Human Conscience and Muslim-Christian Relations: Modern Egyptian thinkers on al-ḍamīr. (p.69)

[29] Solomon, N., Harries R. and Winter T. (2005). Abraham’s Children: Jews, Christians and Muslims in Conversations. (p.32 footnote no.25). Cited from: (Ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad, cited in Ibn Rajab, Jawāmi’ al-‘ulum wal-ḥikam [ed. Wahba al Zuḥ aylī; Damascus: Dār al-Khayr, AH 1417/1996], II, p.22).

[30] Thānawī, M. A. A. (1424 A.H.). al-Qur’ān al-akīm ma‟a mukammal tafsīr: Bayān al-Qur’ān. (p.2)

[31] Iqbāl kā Pākistān 2009. broadcast. Aag TV. (Episode 9) Accessed online: http://www.brasstacks.pk/index.php?option=com_jmovies&Itemid=93&task=detail&id=320&lang=en

[32] Siddiqui, A. R. (2007). Man and Destiny: Some Reflections on Iqbal‟s Concepts of Khūdī and the Perfect Man. (p.35).

[33] Iqbal, M. Bāl-e-Jibrīl: matan, tarjumah aur mushkil alfāz kī tashrīḥ . Edited by A. D. Nasim. (p.383)

[35] Dil is the exact meaning of qalb in Urdū, as used in this poem.

[36] Siddiqui, A. R. (2007). Man and Destiny: Some Reflections on Iqbal‟s Concepts of Khūdī and the Perfect Man. (p.31)

[37] Siddiqui, A. R. (2007). Man and Destiny: Some Reflections on Iqbal’s Concepts of Khūdī and the Perfect Man. (p.72-73)

[38] Ibid., (p.73)

[39] Iqbal, M. (1915). Asrār-I-Khūdī ( اسرارِ خودی): The Secrets of the Self. English translation by Reynold A. Nicholson.

[40] Ibid

[41] Iqbal, M. (1934). The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam.

[42] Ibid

[43] Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, ḥadīth no.4687. Accessed online from: http://hadith.al-islam.com/

[44] Muslim, (2005). Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim (صحیح مسلم ): The authentic hadiths of Muslim. Trans. Al-Sharīf, M. M. (Vol. 4, p.207, ḥadīth no. 2586)

[45] Qur’an 38:26

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One thought on “Conscience, ḍamīr (ضمیر) and Muhammad Iqbal’s concept of ‘khūdī’ (خُودی).

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